Building the Essential: LEGO Hair and Other Archetypes

Baby Makes three

Baby Makes Three by Shelly Corbett

One of the most unexpected crossovers from the world of LEGO building to mainstream culture comes in the form of the vernacular expression ‘LEGO hair’.  A popular insult applied to a person whose hair is overly perfect, hair-sprayed to within an inch of petrification or which displays bizarre geometric angles.   Of course whilst the slang is based on a direct visual analogy, it suggests more: that to have LEGO hair is to be fastidious to the point of obsession, vain and uncompromising.

As an aspect of everyday speech this insult proved its full acceptance into our dialect when it found its way into the script of popular BBC television daytime soap opera Doctors[i].  In the aforementioned episode the prim and proper wig wearing Practice Manager Mrs Tenbee, was described as part of a character assassination as having LEGO hair; and we all knew what this meant.  An overt focus on an ideal external image might betray limitations in one’s ability to adapt and cope with change.

What is perhaps most fascinating about this description, is not so much its social application, but what it indicates about our understanding of LEGO building.  There is something about LEGO hair that exceeds the imperfect, bed headed, unruly hair styles we all sport.  LEGO hair is unlike any real hair; in its ideal plastic pre-formed way it is seen as the archetype of hair.

This link between beauty, perfection and the expectations we all have about creating an ideal self-image, has been explored explicitly through the medium of bricks.  Dutch art director Elroy Klee[ii] has created a series of immaculate LEGO wigs that resemble fashionable hairstyles, an African afro, short crop and blonde layers, using only black, red and yellow pieces.  These life-sized and anatomically engineered artworks were designed to be worn by three models as part of an advertising campaign entitled Mind Play[iii].


Mind Play by Elroy Klee

The photographs of the three women make explicit connections between the idea and visual construction of beauty.   Fashion has long propagated a fantastical vision of the beautiful via a complex aesthetic process: the art of make up, photographic filters, lighting and other camera tricks and the digital editing-out of a model’s supposed ‘imperfections’.  The results being that the models we see presented on the pages of glossy magazines embody an imaginary ideal rather than any individual.  By taking one part of this process, in this case hair styling, and subverting it, these images play with the preconceptions we all have with regard to the aspirations of perfection manufactured by the fashion industry.  To fully control and model hair in this case means having it replaced by a brick built plastic alternative.  The result: a perfect layer cut, a perfect afro and a perfect fringe cut – but all unreal.  All three women look beautiful, but with a knowing nod to the archetype of beauty they have become: with this ideal literally being worn upon their heads.  Less than a critique this witty visual gag engages and opens up a space to think about what it means to aspire to perfection; and how much of that aspiration is linked to a desire to create an identity rather than accept the person we are– bad hair and all?


Mind Play by Elroy Klee


Mind Play by Elroy Klee

However, when we use the phrase ‘LEGO hair’, we are unlikely to be imaging the sculptural beauty of Elroy Klee’s creations.  It is far more likely that the first image that springs to mind is that of the original mini-figures’ brown or black bowl-cut hair element.  This simple piece of brick design being used for several years to stand in for all the hairstyles possible in the LEGO mini-figure world, alongside its pig-tailed female equivalent.   As a design exercise these LEGO elements boiled down the essential features of what makes hair, hair, creating an archetypal form in a single piece.


Original LEGO hair

Interestingly the LEGO hair elements pre-date the perhaps most iconic aspect of the LEGO mini-figure, its ubiquitous smiling face.  The female pigtail variant was used in the mid-70s, when LEGO produced a number of sets with figures with non-articulated torsos and blank faces.  In this era the hair element not only signified an archetypal style but also a gender.  To differentiate the male figures, which were often determined by their hat and role – fireman, policeman and so forth – from the female figures, the LEGO designers used the hair element to signify all women.


Defining a gender by their hair

Given our society’s current progressive views with regard to gender equality, this reduction of femininity to something as trivial as a hairpiece seems archaic and redolent of the time that produced it, but beyond the sexist overtones there is something magnificent to be said about the essential economy of the design.   If it is possible to define LEGO building as the exercise of using the imagination to create new and different creations from a limited stock of elements, then creating a single brick capable of representing one half of all people in the LEGO world bordered on genius.   As an aide to both play and creative thinking, the archetypal form of the LEGO hair element opened up a multitude of opportunities.

This focus on original elements in the LEGO system defines the path that the company took in the late 70s and early 80s.  As they moved away from a range of basic building blocks supplemented by a handful of specialist pieces, such as wheels and windows, they became increasingly interested in developing a universal LEGO language that would support children’s narrative play as well as their creative expression.  During this period the company introduced a number of iconic elements that are now synonymous with the LEGO aesthetic.  One only has to think of the LEGO cup, the LEGO wrench and the LEGO flower to start to see the direction the company was taking.

What each of these elements did, by embodying the essential qualities of the object they represented, was to create an immediate short hand that allowed access to a set of quick and easily transferable skills that a child needed to make a world.  By placing a unique element such as a LEGO steering wheel on almost any other brick, the child was able to create a vehicle with a cab that a mini-figure could sit in.

The LEGO designers made use of this newfound set of possibilities speedily creating within the smaller sets sold in the pocket money ranges a collection of archetypal models.  Using a tiny number of pieces, which crucially made use of these new archetypal elements, they made the very personification of a police car, a fire engine and a lunar buggy, amongst many other classic creations.  Crucially the children who bought these sets with their limited stock of elements could quickly achieve similar results.

Perhaps this development helps us understand one of those false arguments that persist within the LEGO community.   That today, with its almost viral propagation of specialist elements, LEGO sets have lost the creativity that these earlier toys had.  Of course this argument begins from a false premise: that the increase of building options reduces building options.  Patently this is untrue, with the unique and endlessly innovative use of new parts being made by builders within the community daily.  Still, there is some foundation to this argument, that is tied less to a loss of creativity, and has rather more to do with the corruption these new elements have on a pure archetypal world with its limited set of defining elements.

Those who mourn the passing of the LEGO themes of the late 70s and early 80s are grieving for the end of a short-lived perfect Platonic world.   Recalling Plato’s idea of the Forms[iv], which argued that all things in our world, which appear different and unique are defined by singular universal ideas, might be applied to the LEGO system of this period.  If Plato sought to answer the question of universality by noting that the multitude of individual horses in the world were all defined by an archetypal idea of the Form of a horse (four legs, a mane, hooves and so on), then these specialist LEGO bricks that stood in for all people, or all doors, or all flowers, literally created a Platonic world of Forms.  Fascinatingly the classic era of LEGO building might reflect the classical era of Greek philosophy.

Whilst the direct belief once afforded to Plato’s ideas has long since been challenged, modified or outright rejected, culturally its link to how we all perceive a notion of perfection remains embedded in our language and way of thinking.  It is of course no surprise that a generation of children presented with a building system that beautifully represented these ideas of perfection would cling onto the sort of idealised creations and ways of looking at the world it provided.  For the LEGO builder of a certain age these archetypal elements provide a wistful nostalgia for a lost Eden; a time when building meant contributing to a simple yet perfect world that relied on well-understood symbols and conventions.

As the inevitable shift in design continued within the LEGO ranges, developing ever more specialist elements, the relation between these elements as ideal Forms started to waver, and with it part of the purity of the shorthand building language that came with it.  Where once a hair element was enough to identify a gender, there were now hundreds of hair elements to choose from in every conceivable colour, shape and form.    Those who hankered after a lost Eden of ideal building saw a shift away from creating with ideal Forms being replaced by a process of selecting the most appropriate element.

If the diversification of hair elements revealed one problem, the creation of other pieces such as large purpose built aircraft nose cones, huge rock elements and all manner of pre-fabricated flora, exasperated the situation.  The call went out, this is not the pure-building we knew; this is directed construction of a highly unimaginative type.

However the problem was not with the creation of new elements, specialised or otherwise, but with a deep-set understanding as to what essentially LEGO bricks are.  For the critical voices who bemoan the diversification of pieces, the LEGO system is split in two: the bricks that are considered raw elements – plates and standard bricks, and specialist elements that have singular defined uses.  As long the former outnumber the later, the specialist elements simply help support basic brick construction.  However should they outnumber the former, they are perceived to determine what is to be built, with the raw elements simply supporting the ideas or Forms already established by these specialist pieces.

This is just one way of looking at LEGO bricks.  The more generous approach is to understand that all LEGO elements belong intrinsically to the same system, with no artificial division used to distinguish them.  As long as a brick has a capacity to be connected with other bricks it is considered part of the general economy of bricks.  As such, given this rubric, a hair element is only ever considered the personification of hair as long as it is connected to a mini-figure’s head as hair.  As all LEGO builders know a LEGO element always has a use that was never intended by the original designer.


An innovative use of the hair element by Karf Oohlu

A builder like Karf Oohlu[v], who I interviewed to years ago [vi], exemplifies this.  As soon as new mini-figure parts are released he is busy building and experimenting with them; overturning the designer’s original idea.  The hair element being a particular favourite of his for this type of subversion.  This can be seen in builds such as Rage where a spikey red hair piece is used to represent the thrust on a bio-sentient spaceship and Ha Silly Billy where a similar red hair piece is used to recreate a camp fire.  Another builder Takamichi Irie[vii], takes this theme even further in his minimalist animal creations, where a LEGO hair piece is repurposed as a snail’s shell.


Snail by Takamichi Irie

What this way of altering an intended use for a piece reveals is something akin to the way in which philosophers have come to challenge the Platonic view of the Forms.  If you take a classic critique of the certainty of truths in metaphysical Forms as presented by Nietzsche in his famous essay ‘On Truth and Lying in a Non-Moral Sense’, we find an argument that helps us better understand what the relationship between the original designed use a piece has and the multiple applied uses it can be deployed to achieve is.  Nietzsche argued that Ideas are not truths but actually ‘a mobile army of metaphors, metonymies, anthropomorphisms’[viii]: that rather than presenting stable ideas, metaphysical truths were in actuality the product of creative associations.  In conclusion he argued that there are no predetermined essential ideas, only the ideas humans make in an attempt to describe and understand their world.  The same is true of the LEGO system of elements.  There are no essential or true uses of pieces only the metaphorical use of pieces to create new models, new ideas and new archetypes.

So when we talk about building the essential, of finding something archetypal in the process of making, we are not searching for a singular or universal ideal that fits all.  Whilst a LEGO hair element can stand in for all hair, the essential nature of hair is approached in a LEGO creation from a multitude of equally valid techniques, whether this be the pig tailed mini-figure of a 1970s mini-figure to the elaborate afro sculpture made by Elroy Klee.

This notion of what it means to build and discover the essential with LEGO bricks has been something that the company has kept close to its heart from the outset.  An open and imaginative mind can find in even the smallest selection of pieces the right associations to create a metaphor or idea of what they believe is essential about something.  This is seen writ large in the LEGO commercial 15 Bricks in which two children create rockets, submarines and unicorns from the same fifteen elements.  Arguably through the constraints of piece limitation each of the children locate what facets of a rocket or a unicorn fundamentally make them what they are and locate the appropriate pieces to realise this.  The same principle is found repeated again and again in the marketing approach of the company: that the joy of LEGO building is found in its providing of the tools to make simply anything from the most basic of elements, aided only by the power of imagination.

If this approach is true for children it remains equally so for the adult building community.  Where often the media and fan forums celebrate the huge creations, the builds made from hundreds of thousands of pieces and the mind-boggling complex, there is equal skill displayed in those tiny creations that seek the essential in the smallest number of parts.  Take for example the e11even contest[ix] in which builders were challenged to make models with exactly eleven pieces.  The sheer variety of building was staggering.  From Custom BRICKS’s Eiffel Tower[x] to Kaptain Kobold’s Tardis[xi] the quality of imagination rivals anything we see from the super-builders with their million-plus piece studios.  Crucially they also present a way of building open to anyone who has ever bought a LEGO set no matter how small.


Eiffel Tower by Custom BRICKS


Tardis and Dalek by Kaptain Kobold

One of the drives that makes LEGO building such a compulsive practice undoubtedly comes from the quest to uncover the essential.  These small pieces of plastic providing the tools that help us search for what is most important and archetypal about our world, from the homes we live in to the cars we drive, via nature, space exploration and anything else we can think of.  Yet it isn’t a fixed project, none of us are looking for the same perfection, or even the same hairstyle to appropriate.  The LEGO system of bricks is like all living languages, shot through with established conventions and apparent fixed meanings, but when any of us speak we do so with a poetic slant, we change and adapt the words to mean what we want to say, to invent and create a dialect for ourselves and our communities.  In the LEGO community a hundred builders might set out to build their idea of a horse, with the result that the idea of a horse ceases to be fixed to the LEGO element of a mini-figure horse, instead proliferating through a multitude of builds a shared cultural understanding of everything that is equine – there are even examples of hair piece horses.  In the LEGO community building the essential means expanding an understanding through the presentation of difference and diversity, and this principle might in itself be the essential factor behind every LEGO builders’ ambition.


Horse by Mosterbrick


Sleipnir by Mike Nieves


[i] See the BBC website Doctors page:

[ii] Elroy Klee website:

[iii] More details on the Mindplay project:

[iv] See book 4 of the Republic. Plato, Republic in Plato: The Collected Dialogues ed. Hamilton and Cairns, Princeton University Press, New Jersey 1961.

[v] See Karf Oohlu’s Flickr stream:

[vi] ‘Interview with Karf Oohlu’ in Bricks Culture Issue 3, Republic 66 Media, London 2015

[vii] See Takamichi Irie’s Flickr stream:

[viii] Fredrich Nietzsche, ‘Truth and Lying in a Non Moral Sense’ in The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings ed. Geuss and Speirs, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999 p.146

[ix] See the E11even Contest Flickr group:

[x]  See Custom BRICKS Flickr stream:

[xi]  See Kaptain Kobold’s Flickr stream:


This article was first published Bricks Culture 8

Building in Two Dimensions


Big Bad Wolf by David Alexander Smith

One of the more surprising claims I’ve made to my fellow LEGO enthusiasts over the years is that for me LEGO building is a cheap pastime.   This always seemed to fly in the face of AFOL convention. Everyday we are bombarded with images of fans’ bespoke building lairs, replete with hundreds of thousands of bricks. The forums cluttered with enthusiastic discussions about new sets and the addictive perils of Bricklink stores. Somehow amongst this consumer noise I have personally found myself spending very little on bricks, which isn’t to say that I wouldn’t have done so if the opportunity arose.

When I returned to LEGO building in my late 30s I was faced by, shall we say certain financial challenges: 2 small children and their associated nursery fees, as well as a new house with a big mortgage to pay. I couldn’t complain, life was good, and I was lucky enough to be able to support my family; but in the short term there was little left over for frivolous hobbies.

Around this time my wife gave me a bag of LEGO, rescued from my Mother’s attic as a nostalgic present one Christmas. A familiar story for our community quickly followed. What started as a bit of fun on Christmas Day turned into an obsession by the end of January! More surprising was the fact that it unlocked that childhood ability to create and play with whatever you have. The old 1980s LEGO company slogan, ‘a new toy everyday’, ringing more true than ever.


Christmas Scene by David Alexander Smith

I revelled in the fact that I had enough bricks to build what I wanted, and of course what I made could always be dismantled allowing me to make something new.   Combining this approach with the power of digital photography, I was satisfied with quickly amassing an archive of models. Whilst I started buying the odd specialist piece or small LEGO set, there was no desire to scale up and amass a huge collection. Besides my finances strictly prohibited this.

So for the first eight months of my new life in the LEGO community I satisfied myself with building space models and vehicles similar to those of my childhood.   I still do, as my space dinosaur series proves. But inevitably I needed to expand my subject matter; a certain creative itch needed to be scratched. There had to be a way to carry over into LEGO the work I had developed as an art student, and informed my life working in a university drama department.

Initially I was stumped.   To do what I wanted would require a massive increase in the amount of bricks I owned. I looked at the big brick artists like Sean Kenney and Nathan Sawaya, who combined a reverence to the form of brick building with artistic vision, and quickly realised that their scale of work was impossible for a brick-poor builder like me. How could I engage with the beauty of brick-built art with such a meagre collection.

The answer came as it so often does from working within strict limitations. I was determined to make a piece that paid homage to my series of drawings and painting of a phantom figure I had made several years before. Inspiration hit, a shadow only needed to be built in two dimensions, and this would allow me to build at a decent scale without heamorging elements. The result was my first artistic piece, Magic Cat, Lonely Boy, The Bird and Their Shadow, which captured something of the feel of my artwork. It also hinted at another way of celebrating the LEGO brick, rather than the simplicity of the 2×2 element it leaned heavily on the wonderful set of angles found in the slopped elements of the system.


Magic Cat, Lonely Boy The Bird and Their Shadow by David Alexander Smith


The Attic by David Alexander Smith

The next move forward in this development of two-dimensional building came a few months later when I realised how much I could build with only a handful of bricks. The small piece Musicians that followed was an homage to my artistic heroes, Picasso, Klee and Chagall. A simple and unique aesthetic, different yet similar to my paintings, was emerging. An aesthetic that celebrated the LEGO building system and at the same time required very few elements to implement.



Musicians by David Alexander Smith

Work followed on two pieces in short succession that took this idea of building and applied it to popular culture. Luke and Vader, a recreation of the epic light saber duel from Return of the Jedi saw me work at developing a silhouette style that captured the archetypal images of popular culture. Batman at the Graveside polished the technique further, finding a way to capture more detail. As well as fun pieces like my two Wind-Up Robots, which spoke to many AFOL’s childhood.


Luke and Vader by David Alexander Smith


Batman at the Graveside by David Alexander Smith


Wind-Up Robot by David Alexander Smith

A path was now set, where I could quickly and effectively build complex brick images from a handful of elements. A sequence of works followed in the theme of silhouettes that explored the potential for LEGO to illustrate classical myth and literature, from Ancient Greece, to Marlowe and Arthurian legend.


Dr Faustus by David Alexander Smith


Stranger on the Road by David Alexander Smith


Oedipus and the Sphinx by David Alexander Smith

These works gained some traction in the LEGO community, ultimately ending up as a four page spread entitled ‘Shadow Play’ in Mike Doyle’s Beautiful LEGO: Dark book. The most successful of these pieces, a rendition of Plato’s parable of the chariot, featured as a winning build.


The Parable of the Chariot by David Alexander Smith

Later in this same year I took some of these creations to Brick 2014 in London. Despite my initial horror of having to display black silhouette pieces on black table cloths (quickly remedied with a white sheet), the show was a success. I also noticed myself at odds with my fellow contributors. When asked how many bricks did it take to make these, I repsonded with the unimpressive 200-300 pieces. How long did they take you, about an afternoon I answered. By the end of the show I had become evangelical about how much could be done with very little, and I was encouraging adults and children alike to consider building in two dimensions.


The Strategists by David Alexander Smith (Displayed at Brick 2014)

After the success of these silhouettes I found myself at another impasse. Without investing in many more black elements the series could not be pushed further. That life sized silhouette of a Victorian lady would have to wait. Also I was becoming dissatisfied with the erasure of the brick quality of the builds. As I was becoming more successful at building silhouettes, the fact that they were made of bricks was becoming less obvious.

An answer came from the use of negative space and my love of folk art traditions. I found that by punching holes in my work, a paper-cut, print or lace like quality could be achieved. Initially these models were worked out in black and white, in pieces like The Owl and the Pussycat, Chinese Soldier and Portrait of Frankenstein’s Monster.


The Owl and the Pussycat by David Alexander Smith



Chinese Warrior


Portrait of Frankenstein’s Monster by David Alexander Smith

However what quickly became apparent was that the development of these negative spaces allowed the return of colour to my work. By utilising a double-layered technique I was able to colour-in and add patterns to my work. I looked to Russian folk art as a way of exploring this new technique.


Russian Composition by David Alexander Smith


Two Figures by David Alexander Smith


Five years in on this artistic journey, I still regularly turn to two-dimensional building as a way of creating what appear to be larger artistic builds from my still small LEGO collection. It seems to me to be a style  more regularly used by a whole range of builders, and a welcome addition to the huge creative options that LEGO offers. But perhaps more than many other forms of building, its true creative potential is still be fully realised. As an experimental adventure, it is a way of building I can see myself pursuing for years to come. – whether it be through more folk art or returning to pop culture themes like Futurama.



Three Birds by David Alexander Smith




Futurama by David Alexander Smith


LEGO Representations of Nature


Rose by Sean Kenney in situ

Suppose we had secretly played a trick on a lover of the beautiful, sticking in the ground artificial flowers (…) and suppose they then discovered this deceit.  The direct interest they previously took in these things would promptly vanish… [i]

Immanuel Kant wrote this in 1790 in the Critique of Judgment, arguably the book that began the modern intellectual engagement with art.  One of Kant’s philosophical aims was to differentiate between what is beautiful in nature and what makes a work of art beautiful.  He stated that art should never literally recreate nature.  Instead the flower that the artist crafts always announces that it is a representation of nature; the art being in how close the representation is, how near it seems to nature, without deceiving us in any way.

Sean Kenney’s[ii] LEGO sculpture Rose (2012)[iii], illustrates Kant’s point beautifully.  A LEGO flower planted in a landscape garden, which at first glance appears completely at home in its surrounding.  The bricks expertly arranged to capture the organic flourishes of leaves and petals.  Yet there is something uncanny about this picture; this rose is two meters tall.

SK_Rose 1-lowres

Rose by Sean Kenney

Kenney’s use of scale recalls the playful juxtapositions found in Claes Oldenburg’s sculptures, between over-sized everyday objects and the natural environment.[iv]   But where Oldenburg’s work makes us look again at mass-produced objects by removing them from the human scale of ready-to-hand use, Kenney’s work reflects on a different aspect of modern life, the humble LEGO brick.


Vitra Balancing Tool by Oldenburg & Coosje

The choice of scale for Kenney is dictated by both artistic vision and the practical limitations of the bricks. To achieve the arabesques and fluid shapes of nature with basic recta-linear pieces, Kenney has to build at a ratio where the individual steps between parts are less pronounced when realised as part of a larger curve.

As a result the minutia, the dainty flower, the butterfly or the elegance of a tiny humming bird, if modelled in LEGO, to achieve an adequate approximation of its natural form has to be rendered at a giant scale.  This highlights for the LEGO artist the particular dilemma of trying to exactly replicate the natural form in bricks.  The LEGO artist becomes trapped between two forms of failure: to render at a 1:1 scale is to see nature as LEGO, blocky and determined by the shape and form of bricks; to try to break the conventions of the recta-linear form, the 1:1 scale must be exceeded.  But perhaps this isn’t a problem at all?

To represent nature in LEGO is always to begin from a position where exact replication is denied.  Accepting Kant’s thesis the LEGO artist does not try to deceive their audience by making dissimulations of nature.  LEGO creations explicitly show us that they are made from individual elements.

Kenney’s Rose works as an artwork to a large extent because its scale is compensated by the context in which it is shown.  By allowing the viewer the space to stand back and grasp it as a singular image it succeeds in representing nature.  But as with all such images it attracts its viewers to look closer.  As the viewer approaches the sculpture, the success of the representation is replaced by a demonstration of the artist’s LEGO building skill.  Standing in front of the LEGO flower they are confronted by a close-up view of thousands of connected pieces.  The wonder we feel here comes from correlating this detailed view of discrete pieces that no longer hold together as an image of a flower, with the previous unified perception.  The irony being that to show its true LEGO form, the artwork that represents nature has to give up its power to represent and instead declare itself made of bricks.

SK_Rose 9-lowres

Rose (close up) by Sean Kenney

The audience that attends Kenney’s exhibition applaud his talent when they realise that the representation fails to be a flower, only then can they declare “I can’t believe it is made of LEGO.”  And unlike Kant’s lover of the beautiful who no longer found interest in the artificial flower when its ruse was rumbled, the LEGO flower by openly declaring its constructed origin retains our interest.

This idea can be further analysed in the 2014 exhibition of prehistoric animals shown at Milestones Museum[v].  Created by Bright Bricks[vi] the UK based professional team of LEGO builders headed by Duncan Titmarsh and Ed Diment, these life-sized creations of dinosaurs and mammoths offer another encounter with the LEGO representation of nature.


Mammoth by Bright Bricks

The huge prehistoric creatures of the Bright Bricks exhibition retain an expected relation to their viewer.  Unlike the flower, the scale of a real mammoth or dinosaur unsurprisingly dictates that we stand back from them so as to accommodate their whole form in our field of vision.  It is this hugeness that in part fosters our fascination with these archaic beasts.   Their rendering in bricks providing a way of aesthetically increasing our awareness of their size, in a manner that a traditional museum model might not.

As with Kenney’s work these prehistoric recreations also ask us to move closer and inspect them at a face-to-brick proximity.  As with the flower, as we approach the dinosaurs and mammoths, they give up their rendered coherence.  Standing shoulder to shoulder with the leg of a mammoth made of LEGO one is left confronting a wall of brown bricks.  Yet, this is not a negative experience.  By understanding the link between the mass of bricks and the previous image of the mammoth, we feel something about the complexity of pre-historic nature.

LEGO bricks when used to represent living things are perfectly placed to explore the concept of nature as a complex system, which immediate human sensory perception is ill equipped to understand.  Over the last two hundred years we have become increasingly more sophisticated in our scientific understanding of nature, as a way of overcoming these sensory limitations.  Stepping back from the unintelligible immediate encounter, and instead relying ever more on rational codes and scientific systems to explain what our senses have difficulty comprehending.  LEGO offers an important alternative to this conceptual knowledge, an aesthetic idea of the complexity of nature.  By showing us the disconnect between the discrete elements of a LEGO sculpture and the image the sculpture forms, it allows us to feel something about the building blocks of nature without deferring to a scientific system that stands in place of the contingent and real thing.

In the case of the long-dead creatures of the Bright Bricks exhibition, the feeling we obtain about the scale and complexity of these once majestic animals, allows us to feel something about a time we can no longer access.  Where a more traditional model of a dinosaur might try to convince us that it is as close a representation of a real dinosaur as science currently offers us, the LEGO model of a dinosaur activates a wonder and awe for their scale and majesty.   By remaining resolutely a LEGO creation and failing to fully realise the dinosaur, it lets us feel speculatively how much greater than our attempts to recreate it, the dinosaur must have been.


Roaring Megalosaurus Head by Bright Bricks

To be a LEGO artist that chooses nature as a subject is to take on the challenge of nature’s complexity, knowing that they will fail to replicate it. It is for this reason, as Mike Doyle eloquently put it in an article published in the magazine Bricks Culture[vii], that we value the technical skill of the LEGO artist.  An appeal to virtuosity has special significance for the LEGO builder, as a large part of the encounter we have with a LEGO artwork revolves around the fact that it is seen simultaneously as a singular form and as something constructed from elements.  The artist’s technique is always exposed if it is recognised as LEGO, and consequently those skilfully articulated LEGO elements become a crucial structural component of the work.

This differs from more traditional art forms where on most occasions the virtuosity of the artist is put secondary to the unified vision they create.  It is only really the art historian who stands close enough to the Rembrandt self-portrait to delineate the impasto brush stroke of white paint that perfects the depth and form of the face.  With the LEGO sculpture, every viewer aims to get close enough to recognise that the form is made of bricks.  This dual state of comprehension, between image and individual elements becomes the foundation of appreciating LEGO art.


Rembrandt Self Portrait 1660

Extending Doyle’s claim, technique is integral to the LEGO experience: but, building skill in itself does not define the LEGO artwork.  Although we marvel at the skill of a builder like Sean Kenney, it is not simply his skill we want to experience when we approach his LEGO rose.  Virtuosity is a handmaiden for a deeper experience.  To represent something as complex as a natural form in LEGO bricks requires skill.  Without the application of technical skill there would be no correspondence with nature.  However, for the work to succeed, the skill used to create it needs to fail and its original LEGO construction be exposed.   This is what makes the LEGO brick such an enticing creative tool, its utility and almost endless reusable ways of being connected to other elements also signifies why it can never be mastered if instated as part of a representational art form.  The LEGO brick understood as a part of a building system stands in opposition to an idea of an organic thing that cannot be separated into constitutive parts.

The importance of proximity between viewer and work is now more readily understood.  A LEGO sculpture of nature appears to succeed when the viewer remains at a distance, where individual bricks cannot easily be distinguished form one another.  However, once the spell is broken, and the discrete bricks are revealed to the viewer so too is another important issue pertaining to scale. LEGO bricks are made at a human scale; best understood by the relationship they have to a human hand.

When we are presented with a LEGO creation, and recognise that it is made from a collection of connected elements, this other understanding complements it: that the pieces of LEGO have been manipulated and connected by a person.  The complexity of the creation is relative to an act that can be manually carried out by us.  In this revelation our own powers of creation are compared to those of the natural world. It shows us the limits of scale available to the human hand, and by proxy how the real world exceeds our physical abilities.

Yet despite these limitations, there is for the LEGO artist a desire to make something natural from a host of manufactured bricks, a drive that sees a square brick and wants to build a circle.  A builder’s tenacious skill momentarily seems to make the square peg fit the round hole.  This human attempt is essential in the LEGO representation of nature. For an audience to continue to feel something from this encounter with the LEGO sculpture the point of failure needs to be approached again and again.  And the more skilful and complex the approach, the more it engages us and opens the possibility of the aesthetic experience of its failure.  To paraphrase the writer Samuel Beckett, the aim is to build better so as to ‘fail better’.[viii]

If this somewhat technical account of how we understand a LEGO representation of nature works seems a little abstract, it can further be seen played out, sometimes unconsciously, in the value judgments made by the LEGO enthusiast.  Take for example the debates that have perpetuated in both the adult fan community and the media more generally, relating to The LEGO Group’s development of specialised pieces.  There seems to be little conflict when a specialised piece is developed with the aim of replicating a form within the fields of industrial or architectural design.   I am yet to encounter the rejection of the development of wheel or window parts.  Equally when such parts are used according to their specified use, even when articulated by the most masterful of builders, a LEGO creation rarely receives negative feedback.  A wheel, is a wheel, is a wheel.[ix]  Whereas the use of specifically created rock or tree pieces is seen as lazy, lacking in skill and fundamentally falling below the bar of creativity expected of the LEGO artist.

As a result the big ugly rock pieces, as they are colloquially referred to in the LEGO communities, have become a focus for what is deemed undesirable in the building fraternity.  In its place sub-genres of landscape building have sprung-up, and the ability to form detailed rock formations or foliage has become a badge of success.

Whether it is a space base, built into a lunar landscape or a castle nestling in an idyll,[x] the comments that accompany the creations focus as much, sometimes even more, on the terrain the creation sits in, over the architectural forms.


Peace Sells by Luke Watkins


M:Tron Magnet Factory by Blake Foster

The LEGO builders who stick to building recreations of human designs, the car, vehicle and architectural builders, use LEGO bricks in a way reminiscent of Oldenburg’s project.  Instead of scaling-up, they minaturise the places we live and work in, and the machines we drive and use, so as to allow a fresh aesthetic perspective.  The bricks, cogs and axels they use still reflecting the original forms they draw inspiration from.  The builder of landscapes has other aims.

Thinking speculatively about the boundaries LEGO art might be crossing, the aspirations of landscape builders define one important expanding horizon.  It comes as no surprise that the third instalment of Mike Doyle’s curatorial project Beautiful LEGO[xi] takes inspiration form nature.  However, it is perhaps one of Doyle’s own creations that most successfully show us what building LEGO nature might achieve.

Speaking in 2014 on the LEGO podcast Beyond the Brick,[xii] Doyle explained that his LEGO creations always begin from a political basis.  And that he believed that they should not simply be a building experiment or declaration of skill, but initiate a discussion around an important issue.  The work he was completing at the time engaged with the ecological debate around mountaintop removal.


Mountain Top Removal by Mike Doyle

Mountaintop removal is the process commonly employed in the United States, where mining operations asset strip natural resources by literally removing the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.  Controversy has followed this process, which suggests that after the removal of natural resources such as coal, nature reclaims the mined and damaged land.  Critics suggest that this does not occur in the ideal manner that the mining corporations suggest and that biodiversity is irrecoverably damaged as a result.[xiii]

Doyle by choosing this subject matter for a LEGO creation is able to use the medium to directly represent nature undergoing this assault, and by proxy also makes us feel something more about the ecological issue at stake.  Where scientists have been able to provide the rational arguments that show how the technique harms nature, the LEGO artists opens the door on a fallacy that sees nature as nothing more than a resource.  Building blocks ready to be used.

If as was argued, that the representation of nature in LEGO creates a perception where a viewer realises the extent to which nature exceeds his or her own creative powers, in Doyle’s work it also reveals the accepted truth about how we as a society think of nature.  It is common shorthand in a scientifically industrialised capitalist society to think of nature in terms of base elements, fuel and resources that can be utilised.  A way of thinking that the German philosopher Martin Heidegger presciently termed ‘standing reserve’.[xiv]   This concept sees existent things as materials with utility: the river that is dammed ceases to be understood as a river, and rather becomes a calculable hydro-electrical power source.

Of course the irony is that the LEGO brick reduces all representations of nature to reusable elements.  But in doing so, it not only allows us to feel something about the way nature exceeds our technical comprehension, it also exposes the limits of human understanding that seeks mastery through the application of productivity-validated systems over living things.

There is no doubt that science and technical understanding have done much good.  Our medical mastery of ourselves, and our material mastery of our environment, has made life safer, easier and longer.  But what a creation such as Doyle’s mountaintop removal does is make us feel something about how these skills might and ought to be used.  Understanding and mastery of nature is one thing, but how to deploy these skills ethically another.  How surprising then that such an opportunity to grapple with these questions should become possible through perhaps the most obviously manufactured and industrialised of creative mediums, basic LEGO bricks.

Thinking about how and why LEGO artists continue to seek to build and represent nature, the answer is perhaps a simple one?  The medium is so ill suited to capturing the sophistication of nature that it cannot help but present the impossible challenge of such a task in every built attempt.  LEGO representations of nature reveal a necessary human deference towards our world, through the willingness to fail, to make our representations of nature, just that, representations and not explanations of living things. They have the potential to temper the modern proclivity for the technical reduction of things to resource, and as such stand to remind us what might be lost in every failed representational attempt.



[i] Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgment, translated by Pluhar, Werner S., Hackett, Indianapolis/Cambridge, 1987, p.166.

[ii] See Sean Kenney’s website Art With Bricks

[iii] Sean Kenney’s Rose, installed at Reiman Gardens in Iowa April 2012, as part of the touring exhibition Nature Connects.

[iv] As evidenced in an artwork like ‘Vitra Balancing Tools Oldenburg & Coosje van Bruggen’. Photograph by smow blog (, used under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (, cropped from original.

[v] LEGO – The Lost World Zoo, Bright Bricks exhibition, Milestones Museum, February 2014.

[vi] See the Bright Bricks webpage

[vii] Mike Doyle, ‘Plastic Fantastic’ in Bricks Culture Issue 2, 2015.

[viii] “Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try again. Fail again. Fail better.”  Samuel Beckett, Worstward Ho, Grove Press, London, 1983.

[ix] Or as Gertrude Stein famously stated: “A rose is a rose is a rose” in the poem Sacred Emily (1922).

[x] See Blake Foster’s M-Tron Magnet Factory (2014) and Luke Watkins Hutchinsons Peace Sells (2010)

[xi] Beautiful Lego is a series of coffee table art books curated by Mike Doyle with the aim of showcasing the best artistic LEGO creations being made today.  The first volume was published in 2013 by No Starch Press.

[xii] Beyond the Brick, Episode 139

[xiii] See, Howard, Jason, We All Live Downstream: Writings about Mountaintop Removal. Louisville, KY: Motes Books, 2009

[xiv] Martin Heidegger, The Question Concerning Technology and Other Writings, London, Harper Perennial 1977.


This article was first published in Bricks Culture No.3 October 2015

David Hughes Brick Artist


Jimmy from Quadrophenia

David Hughes is one of the UK’s most exciting up and coming Brick Artists. Over the past year he has become well known for his sculptures of ballet dancers and recreations of popular cultural icons from Quadrophenia to A Clockwork Orange.  I caught up with him to find out what life as a brick artist is like.


Self Portrait

David Alexander Smith Over the past year you seem to have really struck out in terms of displaying your work, both as part of the LEGO convention scene, but also beyond that in galleries and art fairs. How has the experience been?

David Hughes Really good. There is a headline note for me, which runs through all of my thoughts on exhibiting and that is the idea of validation and recognition as an artist beyond being a LEGO enthusiast.   Does one want their LEGO work to be recognised for its artistic endeavour by people who are not LEGO enthusiasts? Is there a way of getting validation from the wider art world; and do we care and should we care about this? A lot of the LEGO fan community give me the impression they don’t care about this recognition from non-LEGO fans, and I think that is brilliant. I talked to several AFOLs at a show recently who abhorred the idea of what they do being more than a hobby – being judged or monetized in some way and how that would ruin the freedom and joy they have with their hobby and I think that is a really interesting position. However, I do care about a wider validation and want the artistic recognition and that’s why I’ve pushed my work into art fairs for example. So most of my ‘agenda’, for want of a better expression, at the moment, is to do with a drive for a wider, mainstream recognition for LEGO Art.


PARK Theatre Exhibition

DAS Perhaps there is something to do with the subject matter of a LEGO creation, for instance your engagement with classic design icons, like the chair series of mosaics, rather than just the technical skill needed to build it, which, rightly or wrongly, defines it as ‘art’ and helps it win the recognition you talk about?

DH Yes, there is subject matter and building style, but also aspects like scale which have as much to do with this notion of recognition. I’ve noticed when talking to non-LEGO enthusiasts, with anything that is toy scale it is difficult to convince them that it is not a toy, even if the subject matter or technical skill is not toy related, and maybe even adult themed. So I do think there is a scale issue: I think LEGO art has to be different in scale to LEGO toys if it wants to be recognised as art.


The White Swan

DAS I agree that not being toy scaled helps, but should it make the difference? In a similar vein the type of bricks LEGO artists use seem important in terms of artistic recognition. Often LEGO artists prefer to use standard bricks in a sculptural way rather than use identifiable specialist elements that resonate with the idea of a toy or play.

DH I think the toy scale issue is only at the moment and should change as LEGO art gets wider recognition. But, it is not so much the suggestion of the toy in non-standard bricks that causes the issue; actually it is a genuine lack of knowledge on the part of the general public that these elements exist and are LEGO bricks at all.

I stopped properly building when I was fifteen. I didn’t touch LEGO bricks again until I bought some LEGO sets for my kids. Initially I didn’t’ understand it, there were too many moulded pieces; it didn’t float my boat at all.  So I didn’t ‘find-it’ again as a lot of AFOLs do through contemporary LEGO sets. It was only when I was working on a project on Brick Lane in London a few years later that things changed. I kept going past Nathan Sawaya’s The Art of the Brick exhibition. Eventually I went in and it blew me away, especially because of his use of standard bricks.

So I think that a lot of the non-LEGO art world, like myself 6-years ago when I bought my kids sets, simply doesn’t know that these specialist styles of bricks exist, or that adult fans are interested in techniques other than the traditional brick on brick building.

So whilst there is some fabulous material being built by adult fans that use these elements to make technically brilliant, beautiful, artistic creations, there are, unfortunately, a whole raft of people beyond the age of 30 who don’t recognise their work as LEGO and as a result don’t understand it. That’s why I think traditional bricks work better at the moment, in builds that are labelling themselves as art.

And it is important to think about the audience and who you want your audience to be and why you want a particular audience. As I said, I want a wide, art appreciative audience, not just an AFOL audience because I am interested in art and design in the widest context. This means, rightly or wrongly, that I need to somewhat tailor my technique to appeal to a non-LEGO enthusiast audience.


Cafe racer

DAS Do you think there will come a time when the public, the wider audience if you like, becomes more receptive to these newer building styles?

DH Yes, definitely. I think there is a time issue, where, maybe in 10 or even 20-years time, when the kids of today are the new art going general public, they will recognise these non-brickish elements as LEGO pieces and these building styles as art and this will change how the general public recognise LEGO art.

There also needs to be a way for a wider range of types of LEGO art to find its way into the mainstream art and design world and a gallery setting. I‘d like to see a show that invites a range of artists, much as Mike Doyle’s Beautiful LEGO book did. Imagine if people who are known as LEGO artists, the crowd pleasers, are shown alongside artists using newer techniques. Nathan Sawaya talks about a movement of LEGO artists, and a curated show could present this movement. Imagine LEGO builders (all of whom I really admire) like Tyler Halliwell, Mike Doyle (himself), Adam Mullins the mosaic builder, Joe Perez and Tim Lydy coming together with more traditional brick-on-brick builders to do something like this. That would be amazing.

It should be something more than a convention; an exhibition with proper branding, design, curation, lighting and wall hanging; a proper level of gallery professionalism and the right sort of canapés at the private view. A proper art event.

DAS. Perhaps the adult hobbyists are as much artists as the self-proclaimed brick artists, even if they don’t identify as such. I’ve often thought that the LEGO scene is an example of contemporary folk art practice. We no longer learn needlecraft and folk singing as part of our childhood, instead we play with bricks, and this informs our adult creative expression.

DH Absolutely. A lot of the models I saw at Brick Live in Birmingham, were as I expected: DC, Marvel, Batman, trains, Star Wars and all the rest. Yet within these creations, especially in the diorama sections, there were quirky things, where the builders were trying out different ideas. They were challenging the rigid structures of the franchises they were representing: twisting a theme and making it personal to them. It was brilliant, a real artistic statement where these creators were saying something beyond the basic expectation of the subject matter they had chosen. This way of working could well be a form of folk art, irrespective of if it is talked about as such.


One Good Eye

DAS What has your experience of exhibiting work outside the LEGO hobbyist bubble been like?

DH I’ve shown work at a local art fair and a more contemporary regional art fair. There is also the Boise Art Museum in America that wants to borrow some of my work so I am chatting to them about the logistics of that and Clerkenwell Design Week coming up in May.

People are generally really interested in LEGO Art, which I think comes down to the fact that in the western word nearly everyone knows what LEGO is and probably has a friend or relative who is or was into LEGO building. The comments are typically “wow” and “that’s clever” or “I didn’t think you could do that with LEGO”, rather than just that is beautiful or an interesting work of art. It seemed to be mainly the novelty of the medium that makes people stop and talk and think but then it becomes about the subject and the story of the piece. So it is really interesting that it is working on those two levels – the childlike joy of the remembered LEGO experience and then the piece as art itself. I also think it is important for me, or any LEGO artist to stand there at these art fairs or events and say I am an artist: I say it and so therefore it is. I think the branding of the idea of LEGO as art is valuable to the acceptance process.


Autumn Art Fair Set Up

DAS LEGO creations do have this unique aesthetic; in that how they were made can be read as a code by anyone viewing them, which as you suggest, can initiate creativity as a response.

DH I know you discussed this in your blog before. I’m fascinated by the ideas you raised there about how we define what LEGO art is. Like other young art forms, for example street art, LEGO art is still identifying itself so I doubt we can currently define what ‘LEGO Art’ is as opposed to ‘Art using the medium of LEGO’.  I am really keen that I, and others, embrace the idea of ourselves as LEGO Artists as a definable, recognisable ‘type’ rather than just artists who use LEGO.

What is interesting as well is that there are a whole bunch of LEGO artists that are almost trying to hide the LEGO system, or code as you put it, in their creations. I think they like the idea of building things where you can’t see how it is made. The LEGO fan in me thinks there is something quite cool about this; in the way if you look close enough you can see the joins in their pieces but it comes back to the principle of who is the audience. Will an audience beyond AFOLs take the time to look at, and understand, the incredible technique? It comes back what are you trying to say, if anything.



DAS That idea brings us back to scale. I think the natural scale for a LEGO artwork is when you are able to read the code and the image simultaneously. However some creations are so vast that you can only see either the code or the image one at the time – you need to be right up close to read the bricks in these cases.

DH Exactly, and that is why I build at the scale I do, where you see both image and system at the same time. It’s also why I avoid the smaller scale or a stud-less aesthetic as the majority of people would not read the work in these cases as being made of LEGO bricks. Dirk’s Denoyelle’s stud-less heads for example are technically brilliant and look great, but for the non-LEGO enthusiast they just look like big plastic heads. From a LEGO fan’s technical point of view I love these ways of building, but from an art/design-business perspective, and without us pushing what LEGO Art is to a wider audience, I think we have a few years to go before we are able to make works like this and have them recognised outside the LEGO community.

DAS It seems that you have some very specific criteria in mind when you build. How do you decide what to build, and how does this influence the creative process that follows?



DH One of the things I have done, which is something Nathan Sawaya did, is to make copies of existing traditional artworks. This comes back to the idea of educating the non-LEGO art audience as to what LEGO art can be. Most people know artworks like the Lichenstein I’ve built as a mosaic. They recognise the image, but it is only then when they stop and look closely, or when I stand there and tell them, that they realise that it is made of LEGO bricks.

I find that there is something really good about spotting this process of reinterpretation. It is linked to a certain Pop Art approach; in that I enjoy picking subject matter that is going to be understood by people outside the LEGO fan community as an art form itself. Just as advertising slogans and popular culture were reappraised when they became the subjects of pop art works.

Looking at some of my specific pieces, the Lichenstein for example, is mainly about the technique of translating an image into brick form and inviting the audience to take a closer look. Whereas the Alex head is from the 1972 book cover image of A Clockwork Orange, and is more about the idea of turning a known 2d image into a 3d object. It captures something about the uniqueness of sculpting an object in bricks, which began as a flat print, and seeing how it is turned into a model.


Clockwork Orange

The skulls were a bit of fun, but also again about realising a cultural motif, in this case the festival of the Day of the Dead, in an unexpected medium.


Day of the Dead Red Skull


Day of the Dead Yellow Skull

DAS Is your process different when your subject matter is not about translating from an established cultural image?

DH The six dancers, the grey ones, are at one level more about pure brick exploration. They really were all about whether it is possible to take an orthogonal hard brick and recreate one of the most graceful art forms – dance. These sculptures were about using a solid material, an orthogonal building system, to make something graceful and emotional too.

It was quite a technique led investigation. I think they are successful because of the scale and the two-tone approach, which allows them to be obviously LEGO whilst still being read in terms of curves and movement. They are not trying to be scale-model representations of dancers but sculptures that hopefully invoke an emotional response in the viewer in their own right.


Dancer Series

DAS It is fascinating that you use the way the works are technically made to activate interest. Is this something you have used in other pieces?

DH The architectural and chair series mosaics use of stripes is perhaps another example. Being an architect myself I find it interesting to turn iconic modernist or brutalist buildings into something that looks like a silkscreen print. Like the reinterpretation of the Lichenstein, these are icons that are recognisable by the art and design world as being ‘classic design’. Using a graphic or lino cut style and the vibrant colours of the LEGO palette presents the buildings in a new way. In these works the designer Morag Myerscough’s use of colour was a great influence.


LEGO Battersea Power Station


Verner Panton Chair

DAS Where do you see future projects taking you?

DH I recently completed Afternoon of a Faun, derived from an iconic image of the dancer Tanaquil Le Clercq from the 1950s. It is a beautiful and tragic image. The piece is really taking the grey dancer series to the next level, in terms of scale, technique and colour and continuing to explore ideas of presenting emotion.


Afternoon of the Faun

And I’ve just finished a wall hung sculpture, Leave me alone don’t leave me alone (Blue), which explores ideas and a story around depression and anxiety and I think will be the first in a series. It was a piece I did after writing an article for @inmyheadcase about my own struggles with anxiety and depression. I feel that I have learned a great deal from the work so far and am ready to get more personal, begin to ask more questions and for a new challenge in these pieces.


Leave Me Alone and Don’t Leave Me Alone (Blue)

I’ve also just finished a solo show at Park Theatre Gallery Space in north London, mainly the mosaics but also photos of some of the sculptures; and then I will be participating in Clerkenwell Design Week (CDW) in May. The organisers have approached me and seem excited for me to be involved. They know of me as an architect in the design sense, and I think the idea of one of them, one of their guys as it were, becoming a LEGO artist really appeals to them. I’m also making a new sculpture commission for British Ceramic Tile, one of the CDW sponsors, which will be displayed in their London showroom for the event and then stay there permanently. We are making a short film about the process and inspiration of the piece.

I’ve also recently been invited to exhibit and make a collaborative piece over three days for a cool, contemporary new art fair in London in September. What’s interesting is the organisers really like the idea of us making something with the people attending – we all know this is done at LEGO conventions with the kids with say the Fairy Bricks mosaic or the pumpkin making at last years Brick Live, but we are looking at transporting that idea to an adult, hipster, gallery attending audience, with a subject matter that reflects that context – that’s very exciting and I can’t wait to see where this exposure takes me next.

Discover more at:

Instagram and Twitter – @daveh_design



Clerkenwell Design Week, Platform, House of Detention, 12 Sans Walk,

London EC1R 0AS

23 – 25 May 2017

British Ceramic Tile, London Hub, 26 Seward Street, London EC1V 3PA

23 – 25 May 2017 and beyond





Tyler Halliwell’s Fantastic Visions

Tyler Halliwell’s creations have been stunning the Internet for the past 8 years. Whether building models inspired by gothic auteur Guillermo del Toro or popular video game franchise Pokémon, his art never fails to impress in both character and building skill.


The Endless

David Alexander Smith You have been an active and inspirational part of the LEGO scene for some time now. What got you involved in the first place, and what is it about LEGO that continues to inspire you to create?

Tyler Halliwell My first taste of the online LEGO community came in late 2009 when I was looking for source material for my MOC (before I knew what the term MOC or ‘my own creation’ meant) of Boba Fett’s second ship, the Slave II. At that time I was a 14 year old Star Wars nerd searching for some pictures who just happened to stumble upon someone’s LEGO creation of the same ship. The creation was hosted on a website I’d not come across before: MOCpages. This, to me, was mind-blowing, as people here were sharing creations, commenting on each other’s work, and building things I could never have dreamed of making. From there, I started joining contests, building in different themes, and eventually volunteered to help in a ‘MOCpages collaborative’ for Brickworld Chicago 2011. That collaborative, with the future members of VirtuaLUG, was certainly the beginning of my current involvement in the LEGO community. Since then it’s been a combination of finding my own style as well as continuing to work with others to create new and exciting things.

As to why it inspires me, LEGO is the perfect medium for creating, in my opinion. You can build for hours, then leave your workspace for days and nothing will change. If you mess up, you can take a part or all of the creation apart and start over. LEGO can be sturdy or it can be flimsy. Any shape that you want to create  can to be achieved. There are so many possibilities with LEGO. However, it also imposes many restrictions. There are only so many colours. There are only so many pieces. At the end of the day, you can only put so much weight on a stud or pin before the clutch power will begin to fail. This combination, of complete freedom in conjunction with very definite restrictions makes LEGO a constantly engaging and fun medium.

DAS You have a certain reputation for building models that are macabre or uncanny in some way. What draws you to this subject matter?

TH As a child, I read a lot of fantasy literature. My father is an English teacher and has always instilled in his children a love of mythology, fantasy, and science fiction. Thus, it was not too surprising for me to fall in love with Hellboy, where Mike Mignola combines mythology and fantasy with a taste of horror. After finding two trade paperbacks of Hellboy at a booksale, I of course had to watch the movie. This was my first encounter with the work of Guillermo del Toro. His stylish renderings of the comic characters made me seek out more of his work. I found in del Toro a director who, like Mignola, respected fantasy and mythology and combined those with themes of horror. His work made me appreciate the creepy, the uncanny, and the macabre, and through my respect for his art, made me want to recreate these themes through my art, which just happened to be LEGO. However, I would be remiss not to mention that I also enjoy building things in LEGO that challenge the way people tend to think about the medium. First and foremost, LEGO is a children’s toy. If building a bloody ghost that has a broken jaw and a cleaver in its head makes people view LEGO in a new light, I am happy that I can help alter their perception of the toy.


Lady Sharpe

DAS And then in creations like your recent Niffler and Oddish builds you seem to completely swing the other way towards a shamelessly cute aesthetic. Is this as important a side to your creativity as the more unnerving builds?



TH I must admit, while I’ve enjoyed dabbling in the cuter side of LEGO, these creations were both requested by my significant other. She desired some less-creepy builds to balance out my standard fare, as well as to see if I could even make such things. I cannot complain really as both creations were fun challenges, especially the Niffler. Who knows, this could be the beginning of a period where I only make adorable creations. Or I could go for a decomposing corpse next. It’s always a toss-up.



DAS I guess comic books might be seen as a connecting influence across your work, that draws the cute and uncanny together. What do you find so inspiring about this art form?

TH I’ve enjoyed comics for a long time. Hellboy will always be my favourite but Sandman has also influenced a lot of my work. While I enjoy those specific comics for many reasons, I think I most enjoy comics as an art form because of their accessibility. The stories are just as thorough as any literature but are easily picked up, put down, and reread. As a builder who does best when translating others’ visions into the brick, the art in comic books is very appealing when building. I love reading standard literature as well, I just tend to build from things that others have already designed.


Hellboy (2)

DAS The other aspect of your work people might know you for is the medium of bust building. What draws you to this type of creation, and what challenges and opportunities does it raise?

TH My first bust was the Faun, based on the creature from Guillermo del Toro’s Pan’s Labyrinth. I needed to fill space on my little display table at Brickworld Lafayette, a small hometown exposition, and decided that the Faun would be a fun build. I’d recently built a giant based on Keith Thompson’s concept art and was in the mood for more large-scale figure building. I really hadn’t decided on scale specifics until I started building the nose and realized that the head would end up fairly large. Ten hours or so later, I had a bust and found the size and level of detail really satisfying. It was small enough that I had to use specific pieces to make shapes instead of basic-brick sculpting (a fairly common LEGO bust method) but large enough to allow for unique physical features.  Faun was a hit both at the expo and online. I realised that I’d found the scale I’d been searching for when creating creatures previously. With a bust, I could include a high level of detail without needing to produce a huge creation (though some have ended up quite large). I find the scale incredibly fun, and I never really know where each bust will take me. They’re entirely unplanned, I just start with a specific area that I think will be the hardest to replicate and, once that sets the scale, continue around to finish the creation. The biggest challenge has really been overcoming colour or part limitations. This was most prevalent when I made Thanos and the Infinity Gauntlet, as the parts palette for gold and medium lavender are both quite limited, dark blue less so. However, that made the build a lot of fun!




Thanos and the Infinity Gauntlet

DAS Some of your pieces look extremely complicated. How do you go about planning something as insanely complex as your awe inspiring Monkey King?

TH This assumes that I ever really plan anything! Other than having an idea of what I want to build next and ordering specific pieces if I know I’ll really need them (dinosaur tails/tentacles for the hair of the second of the two Endless after the success of Dream), I don’t really go into a creation with any sort of plan. There is no sketching, I just pull up some reference pictures and go for it. For the Monkey King, I originally made what is essentially a pseudo-chimpanzee head, but in tan and brown. As that turned out well, I remembered liking the mythology behind Sun WuKong in the past and decided to continue my way on down the body. I made the front and back armour plates, chose white for the colour of the clothes (as I have a vast amount from my Red Queen’s Castle build in 2012), and got to work. I made the staff after the armour to set the scale, then finished the upper body. Due to weight concerns, I followed the suggestion of Matt Rowntree and settled on the lotus position. So, there’s really no planning. It’s probably not the best method as it has occasionally led to some urgent Bricklink orders, but overall it’s never been a huge problem. The most planning that I generally do these days is looking over what colours I still have lots of pieces in and letting that determine the next creation.


The Monkey King


Monkey King Work in Progress

DAS Having had a close look at the innards of one of your pieces I know from first hand experience how much you like to push what most people would consider traditional LEGO building techniques. Do you have any special building approaches or tips you’d like to share?

TH This is a difficult question, as I have no experience building in the way that anyone else does. I’ve just gathered the techniques that are out there (SNOT [studs not on top], etc) and apply things that I’ve used with success in the past. I certainly don’t care at all about ‘illegal’ connections. If a connection will help achieve a desired form and there is no better option, I will use it. I suppose my special approach is that I do whatever is necessary to achieve the preferred outer form. If the inside of my creation is a web of hinges and clips all fragilely connected to one another, so be it. Just don’t be afraid to use some unorthodox connections if the perfect shape can be achieved.

DAS Looking back over your work you see a clear point of departure in your work where these new techniques were implemented. Do you see yourself seriously returning to mini-figure scale building – although I know there are the odd pieces for collaborations you still make – or does your art now entirely rely on this advanced way of building?

TH While I am not opposed to using minifigures, I just don’t find that scale very engaging. I have much more fun at a larger scale and have found a niche there. Minifigures certainly have their use, such as in my recent Ancient Ruins moc, where the overall scene needs to be large and there is no room, or need, for a larger scale. However, I doubt that I will be making any macabre LEGO creations at minifigure scale anytime soon. It is fair to say that my ‘art’ relies on the larger, non-minifigure scale creations, but I occasionally find it hard to shake the appeal of the cute little guys.


Ancient Ruins

DAS You are an amazing part of the LEGO community, what has your experience of it been like?

TH I’ve had a great time in the LEGO community. I may not have started as much of a builder, but it seems I have found my niche and since then have been very fortunate to gain my current following. I’ve been in magazines, Mike Doyle’s Beautiful LEGO books, numerous blogs, and recently have been invited as part of a museum show. I’ve also gained the notice of many artists who inspire me, notably Neil Gaiman, Mike Mignola, and Guillermo del Toro. I’ve made many wonderful friends, some of whom I have visited while abroad, and continue to be inspired by the wonderful art constantly being produced. It’s also been strangely effective at making me embrace my overall nerdiness, as my success in the hobby has made it difficult to hide this facet of my life. This has been a good thing, as my friends have accepted that I’m actually pretty good at this weird LEGO thing. My involvement in the LEGO community has definitely opened a lot of doors and led to some incredible relationships and opportunities. I have to assume that my parent’s didn’t expect it to be this successful when I decided to attend my first LEGO convention as a nerdy teenager, beginning to make his way into the online LEGO community.



DAS The community has led you into several high profile and exciting collaborative projects, with VirtuaLUG, the Rivers of Hell with Mihai Marius Mihu and the Exquisite Corpse project we worked on together. Could you tell me a little more about these ventures?

TH VirtuaLUG collaborations have been a constant throughout my time in the LEGO community. While these are always fun, Mihai’s invitation to collaborate together was a wonderful opportunity to work on a something that perfectly fit my interests. Mihai has always been one of my favourite builders, if not my favourite. I also adore Greek mythology and thus, while we departed quite a bit from the myths in the end, I could not have chosen a better theme. Mihai is an incredible artist and combines a similar building aesthetic to my own with extraordinary artistic vision. I can build, but I could never hope to come up with the brilliant worlds that he does. Luckily, he was brimming with ideas and produced a hauntingly beautiful version of Hell in which we dwelled for six months. Once we determined which rivers each of us would build, Mihai produced final concept drawings and we got to work. As I mentioned earlier, I am at my best when building something from an established design. This is quite apparent when my final creations are compared with Mihai’s concept drawings. Of the rivers, my favourite to build was Lethe, as it provided me with the opportunity to build a LEGO skull as the centrepiece of the landscape. While the rest of the diorama was dismantled, the skull has stayed together as one of my many display pieces. I would love to collaborate with Mihai again, as we worked well together and shared a single vision throughout the project. I wish the project had been a little better received by the community and elsewhere online, but I suppose it wasn’t exactly the most mainstream of themes.





The Exquisite Corpse project was also very engaging, as I was able to build what I arguably am best at, a head. However, this did come with the problem of shipping the creation across the Atlantic, as you know well. I decided to build a very sturdy head wearing a tribal mask. I wish I’d gone for a somewhat less sturdy creation, if only to give you a challenge, David, but I did have a lot of fun making the mask. I loved the end result of the project, too, as Tom’s Popeye torso and Stu’s volcano section made for a fantastic sculpture. The end result was as gloriously surreal as I hoped.


The Exquisite Corpse

DAS And finally, what is next, where do you see you future building going?

TH This is a good question. I don’t see much building taking place in my near future, as I’ll be on your side of the pond in Scotland come fall, doing my Master’s work in Anatomy at the University of Dundee. So, for those twelve months, I don’t expect to have much in the way of LEGO on hand or time to build even if I did. After that, who knows where life will take me. It could be the beginning of my ‘dark ages,’ we’ll just have to see. I suppose I am fortunate enough to have staved them off through my undergraduate years. I think there is still a lot to do at this larger scale, and will continue to make organic builds and hopefully push the medium whenever I can.

You can see many more of Tyler’s amazing creations on his Flickr stream here, and for a closer look at the Rivers of Hell project click here.

(How to) Build Your-Self

In 2012 professional psychologists László Neidert and Kinga Bíró set up an innovative approach they called Project Inner Brick. A new psychotherapeutic process that used LEGO bricks in both counseling and educational settings. I caught up with László to find out more about their work and take part in one of their psychological games.


Parenting by László Neidert – Parenting without self-awareness leads nowhere.  Those who never look back may lose the future,… the children.

David Alexander Smith How would you describe Project Inner Brick and what it does?

László Neidert Project Inner Brick (PIB) is a research project that attempts to discover the psychotherapeutic potential of LEGO bricks.  The team consists of two psychologists (myself and Kinga Bíró). We decided to use colourful plastic bricks to develop a series of playful games, which help people to better understand how their mind works.

This combination of playful psychologically based tasks mediated by an experienced therapist is what makes PIB special. It is a method that is tailored to support both education and psychotherapies, and operates as a tool for sharing psychological knowledge, which can be used to gain self-awareness and improve coping skills.

The name Inner Bricks was intentionally chosen to reflect these aims, and refers to our intention to reveal the unseen that is hidden deep inside the personality. Moreover, we want to materialise these things using LEGO bricks.

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László Neidert and Kinga Biró

DAS Did you have a relationship with LEGO before you set up the project?

LN Yes, LEGO is our hobby, we simply love to play with it and collect it. This relationship dates back to our childhood, and has had a significant effect on our lives since then. I wouldn’t say we are amazing LEGO builders or collectors by any means, though. We usually bought 1 or 2 sets a year, put them together and decorated our home with them. That was all.

However my attitude changed recently. After we wrote a couple of articles together we came up with the idea of a blog. We named it Psychology in Pictures and you can find this on Instagram. I build models there, which illustrate psychological concepts, phenomena and even psychological symptoms. Through the blog I want to show that LEGO bricks can be used in a different way, and for another purpose.

Building and writing help me cope with everyday stresses; it’s how I handle my fears and sadness, how I vent anger, etc.  I  would also like to encourage others to do the same, to tackle their anxieties and worries by taking these colourful plastic pieces out of the box!


Sadness by László Neidert – Feelings give us feedback about our needs.  Sadness signifies loss.  It gives us power to detach, let things go and mourn.  Still, I feel powerless…

DAS It seems to me that the project came from your own experience of using LEGO bricks?

LN Yes, the idea dates back to 2012. Although it is a research project I wouldn’t say we are typical researchers. PIB is like a ‘hobby’ for us. We are working on it because we had the idea, and thought we could try to implement our hobby into our professional practice.

We have been working as therapists for almost 10 years, helping children and parents to overcome psychological difficulties, and were thinking about what we could do to make this work more effective and appealing. I believe PIB operates as some kind of answer to our clients’ needs.  We also wanted something new, fresh and modern for the kids. We dreamt about a childrens’ psycho-diagnostic tool that is not scary, moreover, that is cute.

As far as the parents’ needs are concerned, we wanted something that enables them to see the nature of their child’s psychological disorders. We thought that it would be great if we had a tool or method that makes it easier for them to realise the connections between the past and the present, their parenting styles and the symptoms. Last but not least we wanted something where we can ‘easily’ share psychological knowledge. By easily I mean, in a fun and effective way, which is not intrusive or boring.


Therapy by László Neidert – Psychotherapy is about reconstructing memories.  Why would you carry a heavy marble block if you could create a deckchair and take a nap instead?

DAS Can you tell me a little more about how this sharing works?

LN PIB is partially based on the LEGO Group’s method called LEGO Serious Play, which is used as a tool for releasing creative potential. It is mostly used in the field of organisational development. Although it has a widespread theoretical background there were certain aspects that were particularly important to our method.

First of all there is the play, which helps one to realise and experience emotions. Second, as a cognitive psychological concept it refers to its subject through the physical activity of playing, as a way of organising knowledge. This is a highly effective way of learning and understanding. Last but not least it offers the opportunity for storytelling and the use of metaphors. Alongside the activity of play this helps in the understanding of abstract concepts and theories.

Through research LEGO Serious Play has shown that the use of LEGO bricks in playful tasks and storytelling is an effective tool for facilitating communication, deepening knowledge, unfolding new narratives, mapping identities and developing strategies. We thought that these capabilities could be very beneficial to the therapist. Perhaps it could support their work; and we decided to try this theory out.

However to do this, it needed to do more than LEGO Serious Play does, it also needed to be capable of sharing psychological concepts and theories, and supporting psycho-diagnostic work. As such we had to make some major changes.

On the one hand our games are based on personality theory concepts and diagnostic categories. These provide the reference points we need and makes our games capable of diagnosing (i.e. unfolding the subconscious aspects of the personality) and defining a client’s problem, so as to find its roots and to set-up an intervention.

The LEGO models that are created during PIB sessions wouldn’t be useful if we did not ask for (personal) memories, experiences as well. We use the models as a focus for these experiences. It means that with the help of the therapist’s intervention a client will be able to show us through their LEGO creations the unseen: content that comes from their subconscious.


Subconscious by László Neidert – Suppressed desires always return, even from the cellar!

Since our method relies on intimate stories and highly sensitive ‘data’ the presence of a professional helper is required. This is another improvement we’ve applied to LEGO Serious Play. The leader has to be a therapist with significant field experience. He or she is responsible for applying classical dynamic psychotherapy techniques during the building sessions. The most important thing they do is called interpretation. This is the act that links the memories to the symptoms and the past to the present.

Besides this he or she is also responsible for sharing some parts of the processes’ theories in order to set-up a common frame. This frame will act as a reference point for both the parties, providing a safe place, both physical and psychical. This is key for the successful work.

Perhaps it would be easier to understand all this through some activity. What if we gave it a try? I know that you have an interest in psychoanalysis and I happened to have an interesting game set-up, which we could try out.

DAS I think that would be an excellent idea.

LN I’ll set three games for you to play. For each you will need to build a LEGO model and provide a short description to explain the creation. After each I’ll offer an analysis.

Game 1

Imagine that you are a King who has a very important task. You have to create your own Crest. Lets build your Coat of Arms!  Note that your Crest will be seen not only by your people but also other Kings and even your enemies! So, choose your design wisely.


Crest ‘Non Est Lex‘ by David Alexander Smith

DAS I built my crest starting with the motto ‘Non Est Lex‘, which translated means ‘no one law’.  This is my general ethical principle; that rigid laws do not guarantee justice.  This would be a message to my people, that I would judge and rule case by case.  At the top of the coat of arms is a children’s rocking horse, to signify the playful and happy kingdom.  Below this, a heart with an eye, which sees all through compassion and feeling.  An artificial flower, a spider, a tower and a crane occupy the four quadrants of the shield. The flower is a nod to aesthetic theory, that creativity is welcome in this land.  The spider, often seen as a monster is the good housekeeper and enemy only of the flies and parasites.  The tower reminds all of the security and safety of the kingdom.  Finally the stalk is a symbol of new life, but also the prosperity afforded to one who has a long beak capable of finding the best food in even the muddiest and dirtiest terrain.

LN This game is called The Crest Test. It is intended to map a client’s identity, so as to reveal its different aspects. The game it is about how you see yourself and how you want to be seen? The Crest represents an idealised image of the ‘I’.

The King’s motto makes it clear that he considers himself a fair-minded and open-eyed ruler. It is the base of the model and supports the whole structure of his identity.

The rocking horse on the top gives the impression that it is important for him to be accepted and not to be judged. He  can only grow and create in an environment where his feelings (even if they seem childish) and thoughts (that do not always fit into the norms of society) are respected and appreciated.

The King is well aware that this kind of fruitful and hearty ‘Kingdom’ (identity) is a sensible system, which needs to be regularly maintained (by the spider) and sometimes defended (by the tower).

The eye represents the look of the others. The King knows that he depends on them; he (like every human being) relies on their mirroring functions. He needs them to figure out who he really is. The image they show him is used to define himself, i.e. for identification.

The way you put together your Coat of Arms is similar to how identity is put together, using these little sensations and fragments that others show us. The way others perceive us defines how we see and show ourselves.

Game 2

If your people made a Statue for their King, what would it look like?


Statue ‘The King’s Ideas’ by David Alexander Smith

DAS The people decided to call this piece ‘The King’s Ideas’ and gave it to him as a reminder on his duties. It should be placed on display in the office where he works, as a focus for him when making crucial decisions.   The shadowy thoughts that emanate from the king’s crown remind him that his decisions hold all his subjects’ happiness in balance.  He will have to tame the animals (his own and his subjects’ desires), and constantly balance death and disaster on the their noses.  All being well a place for the happy man and woman will be established.  Yet it will take a huge amount of will to do this – being a king is a duty… a duty to always think ideas in terms of equilibrium.

LN The second game is about how others see you? The Statue represents the system we live in. These include our family rules and the norms of society that we have to accept and adapt to.

The King is in a very difficult position since he is watched all the time. Every decision he makes (is seen by the Statue in the office) and every emotion he feels (again found in the eyes in the heart), is controlled by the others.

Balancing his temptations (the shadowy thoughts, i.e. desires) and liabilities (the Crown) is a hard thing to do. The expectations and demands of the others are literally on his head causing serious pressure (both physical and psychical).

It is a serious threat that these monochrome parts of the statue (at some point) are going to absorb the colourful King (who, by the way, does not seem comfortable or happy at all). The King’s biggest fear, that he may lose himself while satisfying others, is real!

The way the black parts bite into the King’s Crown on the Statue is a good illustration of how others’ expectations and demands effect and form our identity; and how intrusive and uncomfortable they can be.

Game 3

The King has a Secret that nobody knows. What is it?


Secret ‘King in the Crowd’ by David Alexander smith

DAS The King’s secret is that he often leaves his palace and joins the people out in the city; it is a lonely business being a monarch.  He never announces to anyone that he is the king, but some may guess because he can’t help but stand out being grey in colour.  However, this is just the first part of his secret, the real secret is that he is happiest when he is not being a king – when he is just one of the crowd.  Yet he has a duty to the people and could never give up his crown for good.

LN The third game is intend to reveal the things that are left or missing from the previous ones. There are things that must not exist; and that is why we call this game the Secret.

From time to time the King escapes from the Castle and joins his people. He needs to do this because it brings him back to a time when he was one of them, when he could be himself. It cannot make him happy though, because he is still a king. There is something that stands between him and his desires and this is the Crown. Sometimes he does not want to be a King, and that is completely understandable. However such a thought is a danger to the Kingdom so it needs to be suppressed and replaced with a much more acceptable one. Something like this: ‘Without the Crown I could be happy!’ Although it is an illusion it gives him hope and comfort in dark times.

The Secret is the most problematic game in this set, and it often causes difficulties for the clients. You were not satisfied with it either, because it refers to a territory that should remain hidden. These things are not normally allowed to be experienced or phrased.

DAS Once the analysis is complete how would you normally respond?


Mirror Response by László Neidert

LN Normally I would make an educational or pedagogical response. In your case I couldn’t resist creating a model that may help you better understand the relation of these games to our identity. I recreated your models and used them for this purpose.

The three models represent three different aspects or parts of the identity. The way I posed the figures refer not only to their relations but also their origins. The grey figure is the King (from your third model). He is standing in front of a mirror, which is held by a human. What is he doing? He would like to figure out who he is.

The mirror represents the social act where others show us who we are. This is called mirroring and is a function used for defining ourselves. The human hand symbolises that the image comes from somewhere else, not from us. The image we use for identification comes from outside (of us).  This distorted, false or fake image is our first (somewhat) conscious part of our identity. This is the Crest. It can be seen in the mirror. This is what the King can see standing before him in the mirror.

The Statue is also visible in the mirror. This part of the identity is based on the language. It contains the norms and rules of both the family and society.

The mirror is in a ‘weird position’. In that this is how others manipulate the images we see. They offset the mirror so we won’t be able to see or notice certain parts of ourselves. Those colourful pieces (around the King) do not appear in the mirror. They are the parts of ourselves, which our existence does not allow. However these aspects of the self have a tendency to return; it’s part of their nature. They always find a way to come back and disturb the functions of the other two.

DAS I genuinely found your games enlightening. It is true that I do place duty very high on my list of desirable traits. I have a multitude of jobs, roles and responsibilities: I’m a husband, a father, a manager, a teacher and a colleague. I take all of these roles seriously; I’m diligent and committed. Yet, they do cause strains and pressures – as all things you take seriously do. Interestingly I read into the third game’s image following your analysis my creative practice. The king in the crowd is perhaps a creation I have placed out into the world along with many others. To not be restrained by norms and family roles for a short time, means being creative, sharing my LEGO artworks with the community of builders – who might actually be other Kings and Queens finding respite from responsibility.

Then thinking about your pedagogical response, I thought maybe those bricks scattered around the king are not only hidden aspects of his identity, but also literally un-built bricks, models yet to be, expressions that need other modes of manifestation.

I was wondering if this type of response to a PIB session is typical? 

LN Yes, it is. I use LEGO (almost) all the time during counseling session, both for mirroring and interpretation. LEGO is a very useful tool for both client and therapist. However you normally have to be over 14-years old for it to work.

DAS From a therapeutic context how successful has PIB been?

LN For us, it has been a success, and helps us greatly in our work. Sometimes I put together some LEGO bricks instead of words to show the client something; and sometimes I rearrange or modify their model to do the same.

Clients like it too. It is more appealing than a questionnaire or other tests, and has a unique aesthetic, which evokes positive emotions and associations. Also it helps them express their thoughts because it is a different language. Sometimes it’s easier to build something than say something.

DAS Where do you see your method being taken next?

LN Although we’ve undertaken lots of research and pilot studies PIB is not an official method or test. Our next step is its standardization. This is a 3-4 year project. At the moment we are working on the arrangements / preparations process. Last but not least we are planning to write a book, some kind of handbook for adults that uses the PIB method.

To see more of Lászlo’s work please visit his blog Psychology in Pictures


From Pixel to Plastic


Atlas and P-Body Wedding Cake Toppers by Legohaulic

LEGO bricks and digital technology have become intimately connected. So much so, that trying to imagine a time before the two worked together is now unthinkable. The plastic brick and the digital pixel in a profound sense have become interchangeable.

An easy answer, which might explain this relationship, would see this connection reduced to prophetic business sense. Speaking with the former LEGO designer Bjarne Tveskov in 2015[i], he noted how his engagement with the early home computer scene corresponded with the company’s nascent project to harness digital technologies alongside more traditional building. This early investment has certainly proved important, whether it be through the highly lucrative partnership it has forged with the video game producers Travellers Tales[ii] or the development of the Mindstorms[iii] range, replete with its educational programming language; or its ability to link with innovative video games such as Minecraft[iv]. Today additional digital content is a staple of many of their ranges, from Nexo Knight power shields to the redeemable digital codes found in collectable mini-figure packs. Undoubtedly this is a trend set to continue.

Yet there is something resolutely material, real and grounded in the phenomenal experience of LEGO creations, that makes one ask how we got from the bricks we hold in our hands to the digital representation of  bricks on a screen. Are these two objects – one material, one not – even of the same type? Douglas Coupland, the Canadian, novelist, essayist and artist, put the problem succinctly when he suggested that ‘Aesthetic experiences and objects are now dividing into the binary categories of downloadable and nondownloadable.’[v] Taking Coupland’s thesis seriously the video game ‘experience’ of LEGO creations and the ‘objects’ that are built from ‘real’ LEGO bricks should gravitate to the polar axis of his binary distinction?


Manic Miner by Dr Dave Watford

Yet, as is so often the case with proclamations that make extreme cases, in practice something else happens. It might in fact be possible to download the digital image in a unique way through the medium of LEGO bricks. For example Dr Dave Watford’s[vi] Manic Miner[vii] model of the eponymous 1980s video game produces a literal translation form digital to plastic representation, where one stud equates exactly with its associated pixel. Given the simplicity of Manic Miner’s 8-bit graphical style, where each pixel is easily definable, it  becomes a code that is effortlessly understood and replicated. The rectilinear form of this aesthetic language allows it in a straightforward way to be recreated via the medium of LEGO bricks

What happens in this process of transliteration between digital and brick languages is a change in status from interactive experience to phenomenal object. The movement between pixel and plastic becomes one of making ‘real’ in the material sense something that previously existed in the virtual realm. This encounter repeats a non-digital experience all LEGO fans have previously practiced: building from instructions. Taking a visual code and using it to build an object in real space.This relationship has come full circle in one of the LEGO Group’s latest ventures. At the newly opened LEGO store in Leicester Square you will now find a portrait mosaic maker. A customer enters a small photographic booth, much like the one you find in post offices and railway stations for taking passport photos. Once inside a picture of the sitter is taken. With the help of a little computer processing this is subsequently rendered as a plan, which can be used to build the mosaic portrait.   A few minutes later the machine deposits a box containing the thousands of 1×1 LEGO plates needed to do just this. As was seen in the recent Channel 4 documentary LEGO at Christmas[viii] this provided hours of enjoyment for the shop’s retail manager, as he diligently demonstrated the fun of translating pixels into plastic.


LEGO Store Leicester Square Mosaic Maker

What makes this process interesting is more than the fact that pixels translate easily into bricks. It is something that many of the best LEGO fan builders have discovered when building models based on video games. When one builds a model of an existent thing from LEGO bricks there is always a sense that it is a representation of the real and tangible object. As amazing as the piece is it remains a dissimulation of the thing which it copies. On the other hand, the unreality of digital subject matter means that copying it is no longer about copying the uncopyable, rather instead it becomes about locating the code initially used to create it. Once this code is identified it provides a set of identical principles initially founded by the computer programer, and that can now be approached through the medium of LEGO bricks. Solving this puzzle, in and for itself, is pleasing.

Matt De Lanoy’s[ix] Bob-omb Battlefield from Super Mario 64[x] ticks all the boxes when it comes to this form of building. A complete recreation of the fist level of the much-loved game, this has everything you need, from launch cannons to Chain Chomp straining on his leash. Putting its subject matter in context, Super Mario 64 saw Nintendo place its iconic plumber into a true 3D world for the first time; and unlike the 3D worlds of today’s video games it wore its limited set of polygons on its sleeve. As such the code that underpinned it was as visible as the simple pixels found in the 8-bit Manic Miner, but now added the extra qualities of space and depth that called out for it to be made in LEGO bricks. There is a satisfaction both in the building and viewing of this type of model – an ability to see the code at work in both the original game and it LEGO  double. In fact the code becomes more visible because we see how it differs yet remains the same across both media.


Bob-omb Battlefield by Matt De Lanoy

The spatial and geometric references that make De Lanoy’s creation so appealing is just one way in which the LEGO brick formula can work. For example Iain Heath (AKA Ochre Jelly)[xi] has in a similar way reworked the first Doom[xii] game in LEGO bricks. His sprawling diorama recalls the original pixelated demons and texture mapped Martian environments, right down to the perfectly rendered gore splatters and ammo pick-ups. In this case, it is the LEGO bricks’ ability to provide sprite-like details that holds the attention, and reveals the shared code between model and game.


Doom by Iain Heath

Surprisingly even when a game’s graphical presentation reaches a level whereby its code is hidden to the player, the process of being translated into a LEGO model may still perform this function. Imagine Rigney’s[xiii] epic model of The Bank of the Prophet from the game Bioshock Infinite[xiv] is perhaps one of the best ways to appreciate this.  From its vast scale complete with emblematic sky rails to the huge Song Bird that perches at the top of its domed roof, it renders the lead designer Ken Levine’s world in a form that reminds us of its coded origins. At a time where the gaming world appears to be pushing ever harder for absolute immersion through the development of virtual reality and the race for pure graphical fidelity, LEGO models that remind us of the human code that made them possible, play an important role.


Bank of the Prophet by Imagine Rigney

Often the supposed retro-graphics, which hark back to a simpler era in gaming’s history, are summarised in terms of fashion. Like the shifts in music and clothing, these games are framed as a stylistic reappraisal of that which was great and authentic about a scene a generation or two before. However, with video games there is another reason why a simpler aesthetic appeals; because again it reveals the code that founds it.

As video games have increased in visual complexity, this relationship to a code has become ever more distant. This growing gap provided the catalyst, which finally provided the LEGO Group with the mainstream success it sought in the digital market place. By teaming up with the games developers Traveller’s Tales they found a way of referencing this fascination for the visibility of a code in a game’s aesthetic without compromising on production values. They achieved this explicitly through a representation of another code, the code of LEGO bricks, within a game.


Welcome to ‘LEGO’ Jurassic Park

The Traveller’s Tales franchise of LEGO games do not reduce their style to a blocky or retro form. Instead they revel in the high level of polygons used in contemporary video game graphics. Their worlds choose to render glossy 3d recreations of actual LEGO bricks, and by doing so use these as an analogy for the actual code beneath the shiny surface. As players we read the world dressed in studs and populated by mini-figures as coded by the building language of LEGO bricks even when the way they operate flaunts many of these principles. In fact these games use many elements that are explicitly not formed from LEGO bricks in their presentation. The gameplay too has little to do with the build-and-play experience of creating with LEGO bricks, relying instead on problem solving, narrative structure and item collection. What the LEGO language offers the game is a metaphor regarding its created other-worldly nature; a reference not lost on the designers during the creation of the LEGO Jurassic World[xv] game, which translates the story of a forgotten genetic code found in an amber brick into LEGO form. A code which allows the possibility of bringing an earlier prehistoric time back to life. Splicing bricks and genes becomes inter-changable in the dinosaur lab and allows the player to create a huge variety of prehistoric monsters through the metaphor of mastering a code.


However it is not the LEGO Group or Travellers Tales who have undertaken the most notable translation of brick language into digital form . In 2009 the developer Mojang released the genre defining game Minecraft. It took some of the recognised block building code from LEGO construction and inserted it into a new ontological context. Here the movement from plastic to pixels retained the creative aspect of the code but altered the rationale for building. Unlike building with LEGO bricks, where there is always maintained a perception of one’s inventions as models, in Minecraft a new status is established. In its biomes the player is completely immersed into to a block-built word and from this a new existential relationship arises.   The reason for building becomes innately connected to the world in which one finds themselves; and the competency of making and creating is as such tied to the needs of survival: building shelters from evil mobs and the elements, finding food and crafting tools and kit to better tame the environment.

The game through its use of code scratched many of the same itches that LEGO building does, and as such a link between the two seemed almost inevitable.   Starting initially with the LEGO Cusso Microworld range, The LEGO Group quickly developed its own assortment of mini-figure scale sets. These products effectively took the Minecraft experience, and once more through the sharing of a familiar code, moved the product back from pixels to plastic.


Minecraft Micro World

As if to point out the truly symbiotic interaction between LEGO products and Minecraft, YouTube’s most popular advocates set about building the LEGO sets according to the logic of their game. In Grian’s 2016 video LEGO VS MINECRAFT – Which Can I Build Faster?[xviii] we see the difference played out in the construction of the LEGO Minecraft set The First Night, both in game and in LEGO bricks. The advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed and the nature of the translation between the two solidified. At this point, it has become apparent that it is next to impossible to decide whether the digital pixel or the plastic brick came first, but more importantly that searching for such an origin is unimportant.


LEGO vs Minecraft -Which Can I Build Faster by Grain

LEGO bricks reliance on a code has meant that from the outset, whatever was built already invested in the building of ideas. In fact one cannot build with LEGO elements without already manipulating a code, and by proxy developing ideas. One could say, that the natural framing that a rendering of our world in the right angled form of bricks archives, is in fact already a digitisation of the world: an obvious ability that transforms the unknowable world of things into the instructions for representation. The thesis follows that LEGO bricks are already pixels – material pixels if you will – and our use of them requires a technological thinking that deals in the logic of coded manipulation.

In conclusion, whilst it was of course financially prudent for the LEGO Group to embrace the digital sphere, it already had a massive advantage over many of its competitors in the toy market. It had a language that did not so much need to be reimagined in digital terms, as it was already a code that a computer could manipulate. But perhaps more importantly it was also a way of thinking that aligned itself with our own technological evolution.


[i] David Alexander Smith, ‘Interview with Bjarne Tveskov’ Bricks Culture #4 (January 2016)

[ii] See Travellers Tales website

[iii] See LEGO Mindstorms website

[iv] See Minecraft website

[v] Douglas Coupland ‘On Craft’ in Shopping in Jail (Sternberg Press, 2013) p.2

[vi] See Dr Dave Watford’s blog Gimme Lego

[vii] Play Matthew Smith’s classic Manic Miner here:!manicminer

[viii] LEGO at Christmas, Channel 4 (2016)

[ix] See Matt De Lanoy’s Flickr stream

[x] See the Super Mario 64 wiki

[xi] See Iain Heath’s Flickr Stream

[xii] See the Doom webpage

[xiii] See Imaging Rigney’s Flickr stream

[xiv] See the Bioshock Infinite’s webpage

[xv] See the LEGO Jurassic World page

[xvi] See Grain’s LEGO VS MINECRAFT – Which Can I Build Faster? video here